Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Operation Overlord

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A platoon of men wait to go ashore at Omaha beach on June 6th, 1944 on a LCVP (or a Landing Craft Vehicle, Personnel).

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Allied Leaders from the United States rest while equipment is unloaded from more LCVP's. Afterwards they helped make a great difference for the Second World War while they took back the Western front from Axis forces.


The objective of Operation Torch was to gain control of North Africa from French Morocco and Tunisia, trapping Rommel's Afrika korps between Torch and the British Eighth Army to the east. After defeating Rommel, the Allies would control North Africa from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea.
This picture can be found here

Navajo Code Talkers 1

This picture that was taken in the 1942 is a primary resource, Because it was taken of the Navajo talkers at that time period. This photo was found at (www.geocities.com/ww2_remembered/1942.html)

This photo was created for people in the future like you to kind of get an idea of how they looked and what they used to translate and record "Navajo". This photo shows that they needed to carry and transport all that most likely heavy things around with them. It also shows that even kids like the boy could be a "Navajo Code Talker". You can tell what they used to wear back in that time period by their clothes.

This photo Taken in the 1942 is a primary source because its a photo of solder of a Navajo code talker during world war II. I'm guessing this picture was taken to show that even the Navajo talkers had to be prepared to fight while trying to communicate and such, For people that weren't there to actually see what was going on and how hard it was to be. By this picture you can see that they would hold their "phones/devices" on their backs and run around with them. You can see that where they were was dry and probably really hot. It also shows the weapons that they used in the war.

This picture was found at (die-cast-army.over-blog.com/article-15215497.html)

Using the Code.

The Navajo Code Talkers Program was established in September 1942. Navajo is an unwritten language and completely unintelligible to anyone except another Navajo, and that it is a rich fluent language for which code words, in Navajo, could be devised for specialized military terms.

Once the code talkers completed training in the States, they were sent to the Pacific for assignment to the Marine combat divisions. In May 1943, in response to a request for a report on the subject, the various division commanders reported to the Commandant that excellent results had been achieved to date in the the employment of Navajo code talkers in training and combat situations, and they had performed in a highly commendable fashion. This high degree of praise concerning the Navajos' performance prevailed throughout the war and from commanders at all levels.

In recognition of their dedicated service to America during World War II, the Navajo code talkers were awarded a Certificate of Appreciation from the President of the United States in December 1981. Their unique achievements constitute a proud chapter in the history of the United States Marine Corps. Their patriotism, resourcefulness, and courage also have earned them the gratitude of all Americans.

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This info written May 14, 1982 Found (http://www.thepeoplespaths.net/history/usmccode.htm) Was written by the Reference Section History and Museums Division, Its a secondary source. For it was not written during the time of the war. This article was written to give a little back round on where the Navajo Talkers originated and Why we used it. They knew that they could use the code because no one else knew it. Only the Navajos. It was a Complicated language so other people couldn't really use it.

It was also an Unwritten language.

Navajo Code Talkers in Training.

With the Commandant's approval, recruitment began in May 1942. Each Navajo underwent basic boot camp training at San Diego, the Marine Corps Recruit Depot before assignment to the Field Signal Battalion for training at Camp Pendleton.

It should be noted that at the outset, the entire Navajo code talker project was highly classified and there is no indication that any message traffic in Navajo language. As a footnote, tests in the Pacific under combat conditions proved that classified messages could be translated into Navajo, transmitted, received and translated back into English quicker than messages which were encoded, transmitted and decoded employing conventional cryptographic facilities and techniques

*Section Of article*

This info found at http://www.thepeoplespaths.net/history/usmccode.htm Was written by the Reference Section History and Museums Division, March 14, 1982. This information is a secondary source. For they did not write it during the time period of world war II. This article was written for people to learn a little about the history of the Navajo code Talkers and what it took to be one and become one. The Navajo Code talkers weren't there just to communicate and translate they were there to fight just like any other solder. They made sure they could translate fast and that it could get around fast. They did a couple test and procedures before they went out in the battle field.

This Photograph is a primary source, It was taken at the time of the event. Im not sure of the exact date this photo was taken but during world war II. This picture shows people in our time and people in the future a little about what they Navajo Code talkers did and how they trained in their camps. This camp was based in san deigo. Im assuming the people in this photo are studing Navajo and practicing the language. They could have also been making up new words for battle. I found this photo at http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/images3/navajo-codetalkers01.jpg

Friday, February 27, 2009

Normandy: Operation Overlord

This image can be found here.

A message from Dwight D. Eisenhower sent to General Marshall telling of the events that suspended the original set date of D-day. It simply tells of how the weather had been awful on the scheduled date and the visit Eisenhower had given the troops before the were deported for the operation.

This image can be found here.

This picture shows wounded men from the 3rd battalion, receiving food after they had stormed the beaches of Omaha on June 6th, 1944, the day after the originally scheduled date for D-day.

Navajo Code Talkers [Tylee Pugmire]

Fourteen Comanche code talkers took part in the Invasion of Normandy, and continued to serve in the 4th infantry division during further Europian operations

It all started when a man named Philip Johnston preposed the use of the Navajo in World War 2 to the United States Marine Corps. The idea was very soon accepted by everyone and then the Navajo code was formally developed and modeled on the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet that uses agreed upon enlish words to form sentances that mean something different than they appear. Before Johnston came into the picture they were planning on actually spelling out every letter of each military term to each other, but they figure that the idea might be too time consuming. They later changed the code because the terms had to fit the standard use for war.

The code was then used during World War 2, the Korean war, and ended before Veitnam. This code was one of the hardest to crack. Even the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy never cracked the spoken code, and high ranking military officers would've never one the Battle of Iwo Jima without the secrecy offered by the code talkers.

When Adolf Hitler found out about the sucessful use of code talkers during world war 1 he sent a team of 30 anthropologists to learn the native american laguages before the outbreak of world war 2. However it proved to be difficult to learn all the many laguages and dialects that existed at that time. Because the Nazi german antheropologists' attempted to learn the languages, the U.S. army didnt implement a vary large scale code talker program in the Europian Theater. The comanches used over 100 code terms that were phrased in their own language. For example the code word for tank was "turtle," and a bomber was "pregnant airplane," and the machine gun was "sewing machine," Hitler later became "the crazy white man."

Two code talkers were assigned to each unit, or regiment, and the rest to the 4th infantry division headquarters. Shortly after they had landed on the Utah beach on June 6,1944.

The Congressional Gold Metal


The code talkers recieved no recognition for there work until after the declassification of the operation in1968. Then later in 1982 the code talkers were given a Certificate of Recognition by president Rhonald Reagan, who also named August 14, Navajo code talker day. Later Bill Clinton awarded the Congressional Gold Metal to twenty-nine code talkers. Also in July of 2001 president Bush personally awarded the metal to 4 surviving code talkers. Then a movie in 2002 was released about the Navajo Code Talkers.

Summary: The Navajo indians did alot for our country. They gave us a shot at winning WW2. They provided a whole language that was used to bring this counry peacce. They will always be remembered for all the work they've done.

Quiz Questions:

  1. What was Hitler called by the Code Talkers during World War 2?
  2. What was the award that president Rhonald Reagan gave the Code Talkers after the war?
  3. What did Bill Clinton give them?
  4. How many anthropologists did Hitler use to try and uncover the code?
  5. What was the word for Tank?
  6. The code talkers used over 100 terms during the war True or False?
  7. The code talkers were sent over a million dollars and a card from president Bush True or False?
  8. Did they have to modify the language before using it in the war? Answer yes or no.
  9. What was a bomber called?
  10. How many code talkers were assigned to each unit?

Navajo Code Talkers 1

This photo is a primary source

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Navajo Code Talkers

This image was found here:
( http://www.answers.com/topic/code-talker)
These men were captured by the Wind Talkers. Wind Talkers were a group of men within the Marines that created a special launguage known as the "Navajo Code". One Marine stated that if it were not for the Wind Talkers, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima and other places.

This image can be found here:

The Navajo Code was created by a Navajo Code Talker obtaining a string of unrelated Navajo words, then they translated every word into English, then they used the first letter in every word to make a whole word in English. The original Navajo Code Talkers also created and learned approximately 450 words that represented military terms.

The first group of 29 recruits in May 1942, developed a dictionary

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Selections from Interview with Joe Kellwood on December 28, 2004:

"From here I went to San Diego. Let me go back, I enlisted in Albuquerque, they give you two weeks to put your (things in order) and return to where you enlisted. You go there ready to go. All prepared to go into the service. In my case, they sent me down here (Phoenix), We stopped in Gallup, New Mexico, in the evening. Here comes all these Navajos that I went to school with and a lot of others that I don’t know. I ask where they’re going and they say, “San Diego, Marine Corps.” So there’s a group of us that come from NM to Needles. It’s one of those places, I know there’s Williams and there’s Needles. I have to change the train there to go to Phoenix and there rest went on through L.A. and on to San Diego. I was coming down to Wickenburg at 10:00 o’clock in the morning. My instructions were, when you get off the train go a block east and a block north. I stay overnight here and they have a place for me to stay and they furnish me food. The next day in the evening, we left here and stopped some place for a freight train to go by. We were near Yuma. They had the double engine, that they put onto the one we had. So we went through the tunnels. We stopped in old Mexico. Service people are on the side, all guarding the train, so no one jumps off. From there we made it to San Diego.
That’s how I joined the service

You asked me why I joined the Marines. My sister was kind of getting scary. Because the way these enemies were doing things, torture. I just let her know that I was going to get training to meet the enemy. And that made her cry."

This quote can be found here:

These are the silver and gold medals the first 29 navajo code talkers recieved in world war two.
This picture can be found here:http://www.wrscouts.com/code_talkers.htm